2013.03.14 - vector<> vs. list<>

almost exactly year ago Bjarne had a C++11 style presentation in Wrocław. aside from many interesting pieces of information, there was very nice example of how CPU caches and memory access affect applications' runtime, on modern hardware.


the algorithm is simple: insert N random elements to a container, so that it remains sorted all the time. after that, N times remove 1 element, from a random position. the question is: which container will be faster? list or vector? how big N will be the breaking point, where list is faster than vector? the answer is: never! due to constant cache misses, when using list, and constant cache hits, when using vector, the former one outperforms the other for all Ns!

recently i was doing a training/presentation, on cache and memory effects, for colleagues at work, and was not believed it is, as Bjarne suggested. “how come moving thousands of elements is faster than iteration over list nodes”? well it is. but of course we do not take anything on one's word – we do measure instead.


code implemented in C++, along with makefile for automatic generating images from gathered results, are available for download. for the reference, my test code follows:

// implemented by BaSz @ 2013/q2
// g++-4.7 -Wall -std=c++11 -O3 -DNDEBUG -march=native -o vector_vs_list.out vector_vs_list.cpp
#include <list>
#include <vector>
#include <chrono>
#include <random>
#include <iomanip>
#include <iostream>
#include <typeinfo>
#include <algorithm>
#include <cinttypes>
#include <cassert>
using namespace std;
typedef chrono::high_resolution_clock Clock;
typedef std::list<uint64_t>   List;
typedef std::vector<uint64_t> Vector;
template<typename C, typename R>
uint64_t algo(R r, const uint64_t n)
  C                      c;
  typename C::value_type out = 0;
  // insertion
  for(uint64_t i=0; i<n; ++i)
    const auto x  = r();
    auto       it = c.begin();
    while( it!=c.end() && *it<x )
    c.insert(it, x);
  // sanity check
  assert( is_sorted( c.cbegin(), c.cend() ) );
  // removal
  for(uint64_t i=0; i<n; ++i)
    const auto pos = r() % c.size();
    auto       it  = c.begin();
    for(uint64_t i=0; i<pos; ++i)
  return out;
template<typename C>
void run(const uint64_t n, const uint64_t seed)
  // prepare rand
  mt19937                            gen(seed);
  uniform_int_distribution<uint64_t> dist(0, n-1);
  auto                               r = [&]{ return dist(gen); };
  // work
  auto start = Clock::now();
  auto ret   = algo<C>(r, n);
  auto stop  = Clock::now();
  // info
  auto diff  = stop-start;
  cerr << typeid(C).name() << " = " << fixed << setprecision(3)
       << chrono::duration_cast<chrono::microseconds>(diff).count()/(1000*1000.0)
       << " [s] (xxx==" << ret%10 << ")\t";
int main(void)
  // initilize generator with some seed
  std::random_device rd;
  const auto         initSeed = rd();
  mt19937            gen(initSeed);
  cerr << ">> initial seed = " << initSeed << endl;
  for(uint64_t n=0; n<10*1000*1000l; n+=2000)
    const auto seed = gen();
    cerr << "N = " << n << "\t";
    run<List>  (n, seed);
    run<Vector>(n, seed);
    cerr << " \t (for seed " << seed << ")" << endl;
  return 0;


results were obtained from 4, random runs. figures are grouped in a “full” and “begin” sets. each run is presented on a separate figure. click on images to enlarge them.


set “full” contains all data gathered, from N=0 to N=80k.

run 1 / full run 2 / full run 3 / full run 4 / full


set “begin” shows just first 25% of obtained data, to show how does pictures look for small Ns.

run 1 / begin run 2 / begin run 3 / begin run 4 / begin


Bjarne did not lie. this statement is true for over 10 years now. as CPUs become constantly way faster than memory, the gap increases over time.

blog/2013/03/14/vector_vs_list.txt · Last modified: 2021/06/15 20:09 by
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